History of Electronic Media


History of Electronic media

Civic Journalism

Customization of News

Future of Newspaper

Links to other journalism sites

December 16, 1996

Emergence of Information Superhighway:

The beginning of the information highway can be dated back to 1968, when the U.S. Department of Defense created the first network for mainframe computers to communicate with one another (Shoemaker & Reese, p.217). Then, university professors used that kind of networking and further extended its application to private and public companies.

The Internet was started by Mosaic, developed by a student at the University of Minnesota. It evolves to include hypertext links, graphics, audio and video features integrated on the Web. Through browsers, readers are able to view unlimited source of information anytime and anywhere they want.

Growth of Electronic Newspapers:

Newspapers ranging from national to local and from large to small circulations have established their online news edition during the past three years. Even well-known and nationwide newspapers like the New York Times, which are used to respond slowly to new technology, has debuted its Web version free to the public.

A 1996 survey of newspapers and magazines finds that 77 percent of all newspapers and magazine editors plans an online edition, compared with only 54 percent the previous year. At daily newspapers, 15 percent is already online, and an estimated 72 percent will have their Web presence within five years.

Nicholas Negroponte, professor at Massachusetts Institute of Technology and founding director of its renowned Media Lab, wrote in his book, "Being Digital," that the electronic newspaper is a simple but necessary step toward the ultimate goal of interactive media.

Back To Top

Role of Newspaper
"Whether these new channels include interactive TV, online computer services, CD-ROM technology or other emerging technologies, newspapers must ensure their place as the primary information provider, regardless of the pipeline," said Eric Wolferman, senior vice president of the Newspaper Association of America.

Personal Collection
Links to other journalism-related sites


  • Shoemaker, Pamela J. & Reese, Stephen D. (1996). Mediating the Message: Theories of Influence on Mass Media Content. (2nd ed.). New York: Longman. Chapter 8.

  • Middleberg, Donald & Ross, Steven. (March 1996). "The Media in Cyberspace." Paper delivered at Columbia University.

  • Negroponte, Nicholas. (1995). Being Digital. New York: Doubleday. p.11.

    Go to:

    The Notion of Civic Journalism
    Customization of Online News
    Future of Newspaper
    Links to other journalism sites

    This paper is prepared by Shirley Yam.
    Yam is a graduate student in
    College of Journalism and Communications
    at University of Florida.