The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People

                                

  	During the 1930's National Association for the Advancement of 

  Colored People (NAACP) attorneys Charles H. Houston, William Hastie,

  James M. Nabrit, Leon Ransom, and Thurgood Marshall charted a legal 

  strategy designed to end segregation in education.  They developed a 

  series of legal cases challenging segregation in graduate and 

  professional schools.  Houston believed that the battle against 

  segregation had to begin at the highest academic level in order to 

  mitigate fear of race mixing that could create even greater hostility

  and reluctance on the part of white judges.  After establishing a series

  of favorable legal precedents in higher education, NAACP attorneys 

  planned to launch an all-out attack on the separate-but-equal doctrine

  in primary and secondary schools.  The strategy proved successful.  

  In four major United States Supreme Court decisions precedents were 

  established that would enable the NAACP to construct a solid legal 

  foundation upon which the Brown case could rest : Missouri ex rel. 

  Gaines v. Canada, Registrar of the University of Missouri (1938); 

  Sipuel v. Board of Regents of the University of Oklahoma (1948); 

  McLaurin v. Oklahoma State Regents for Higher Education (1950); and 

  Sweatt v. Painter (1950). 
[CASES][Ferderalism][BROWN CASES]

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