Struggles and Federalism

	  The intervention of the federal government and the deployment of 

  the National Guard in the 1954 Little Rock crisis, and again in 1963 

  when the enrollment of James Meredith desegregated the University of
  Mississippi, highlights the role of federal power in promoting social

  change during this era.  While black local and national leaders organized

  and orchestrated the legal struggles, and students joined in freedom 

  rides and staged sit-ins, another equally important dimension of the 

  rights quest took shape : the battle between  federal and state authority

  and the evolution of the doctrine of federalism.  The fact remains that 

  the United States Supreme Court lacked the power to enforce its decision. 

  President Dwight D. Eisenhower's use of federal troops in Little Rock 

  was a major departure from the reluctance of past presidents to display

  federal power in the South, especially to protect the lives and rights 

  of black citizens.


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