Elements of Design


Positive Space is filled space - the space that text and photos take up.

Negative Space aka White Space is empty space - where there is no content. White space doesn't have to be white, it just has to be empty of visuals and type.

Space is important in creating emphasis. It establishes a hierarchy of the way the eye should flow across the layout. White space is never going to be your enemy. It gives a layout breathing room and focuses the viewer.


The simplest tool to create space. Everything is comprised of lines. They further aid in establishing a logical flow as they move the eye. Lines create organization and enforce hierarchies.


A closed line is a shape. Shapes can be organic and inorganic. They can be complex or simple. Everything is made of lines and therefore shapes. Shapes are important in structure and organization. They can also be used to trigger and instant recognition - a heart shape calls to mind love, passion and romance.


How big or small something is in comparison to something else. Size is crucial for establishing order and composure and determining what object is dominant.


Repetition and duplication. Patterns can range from grouping photos together to a list of bullets. Consistent patterns create unity and cohesion. They bring life and energy to a design. By using consistent patterns, it makes it easier on the viewer since they don't need to process new information.


The depth and dimension of a design. It creates a sense of realism that can resonate with viewers. It is much more immersive and appeals to the senses. It can be used with a pattern, a shape or a line to make a design look three dimensional.


The range of lightness and darkness. It can be used to create depth and dimension. It can be used to emphasize or subdue an element. It also creates variation that keeps the design visually intriguing.


It creates a visual impact. It evokes emotion. It organizes a design. Color is life.