Generally speaking, the only player that gets to pass the ball is
the quarterback. Passing is key to any offense, because it allows
the offense to gain yardage in larger increments than is usually
possible by running the ball.
Passes have the opportunity for big plays, but risk the ball being intercepted by a defender or of the quarterback being tackled behind the line of scrimmage, resulting in a loss of yardage.
Shorter passes, under 10 yards or so, are safer because the receivers don't have to run out as far to get open, resulting in less time of vulnerability for the quarterback.The longer the pass, the more the risk.
When it comes to passing, it's accuracy, not arm strength, that's the name of the game. The next time you watch football, notice that often, the receiver is barely open on pass plays. It is the quarterback's pass the makes the receiver open. The quarterback must put the pass where only the receiver can get it. This is why accuracy is so important. Sometimes, 6 inches is difference between a tight pass and an interception.
Vision is also very important. On TV, it is easy to see where there aren't defenders. From eye level, it is hard to see what receivers are open and where to put the passes. Since defenders are chasing the quarterback, being able to anticipate when the receiver will be open is valuable. Vision is more valuable than any athletic ability.