Book publishing is a thriving industry. Academic titles account for a large fraction of all works published, but there is also a considerable market for literature.
The press functions with little government censorship, and serious controls have been imposed only in matters of national security, in times of emergency, or when it is deemed necessary to avoid inflaming passions (e.g., after communal riots or comparable disturbances).
Radio broadcasting began privately in 1927 but became a monopoly of the state in 1930. In 1937 it was given its current name, All India Radio, and since 1957 it has been known as Akashvani.
Television was introduced experimentally by Akashvani in 1959, and regular broadcasting commenced in 1965. In 1976 it was made a separate service under the name Doordarshan, later changed to Doordarshan India ("Television India"). Despite the government's broadcasting monopoly, rules of fairness allow opposition voices to be heard, especially during election campaigns.