• Always arrive on time and be prepared
  • Complete all assigned tasks
  • Follow directions
  • Maintain a positive attitude
  • Use complete sentences
  • Project your voice and speak clearly
  • Maintain eye contact during conversations
  • Listen attentively when others are speaking
  • Be enthusiastic about doing a good job
  • Participate actively in group discussions
  • Cooperate when working with others
  • Be helpful to others and considerate of their feelings
  • Avoid using insults and critisizing remarks
  • Maintain sef-control, especially when angry
  • Identify your strengths and compliment yourself for your achievements
  • Compliment others for their success
  • Understand that you are an important person today and everyday
  • Set goals and work hard to reach them
  • Don't say "I can't" instead say "I'll try"
  • When you start something, finish it
  • Never give up!

    The overall objective of the program is to empower African-American children for academic and social success. Thus, the interventions used in the model proram are based on Dr. Tucker's Self-Empowerment Theory of Achievement. The following is a description of SETA, its consequences for children's academic and social functioning and the intervention strategies that the program uses to empower the children.

What is the Self-Empowerment
Theory of Achievement?

    1. Self-motivation to achieve
    2. Percieved self-control of behavior and achievement outcomes
    3. Self-reinforcement i.e. self-praise
    4. Adaptive skills i.e. communication, socialization and daily living skills
    5. Engagement in success behaviors

SETA suggests that the higher the level of these variables in a child, the more likely he or she is to exhibit academic and social success.

Why are these variables so important?

    Many of the external variables (e.g., socioeconomic status, family functioning, teachers attitudes etc.) that significantly influence academic and social problems are unlikely to change during childhood. Because of poverty, neighborhood violence, racism and discrimination, many of the external influences on the academic performance and behavior of African-American youth are negative, and impede the success of these youth. For this reason it is critical that African-American youth develop high levels of self-motivation, percieved self-control, self-reinforcement, adaptive skills and engagement in success behaviors.

How can SETA be used to prevent problem behaviors and academic failure?

    Based on SETA, intervention strategies to modify and prevent behavior problems and academic failure should teach these youth:
    1. To teach themselves (using self-instruction based learning)

    2. To motivate themselves (using short-term and long-term goals)

    3. To self-manage their behaviors and express their feelings constructively

    4. To use adaptive skills and to practice success behaviors

    5. To praise themselves for acquiring and using adaptive skills and success behaviors

    Essentially, centering a child's focus of control will empower the child. It is important for children to be self-empowered because the external variables that influence them are generally immutable, often negative and beyond their control.

The "Step-By-Step" Method for
teaching new behaviors and academic tasks

    Step 1.

      The teacher figures out what steps are involved in doing the behavior/task by doing it himself prior to meeting with the learner.

    Step 2.

      The teacher writes the steps on a large index card or sheet of paper using clear print and simple wording.

    Step 3.

      The teacher expalins to the learner what will be taught using the steps on the index card or piece of paper.

    Step 4.

      The teacher show the learner how to do the behavior/task by readingaloud and then doing each step. The learner is told to listen and observe the demonstration and feel free to ask questions as the teacher demonstrates each step.

    Step 5.

      The teacher instructs the learner to read aloud and then do each step. The teacher assists the learner in getting a step correct when an error is made or when the learner has forgotten how to do a step. It is important to make sure the learner does not skip any steps.

    Step 6.

      The teacher instructs the learner to read silently and then do each step.

    Step 7.

      The teacher instructs the learner to study the steps in an effort to memorize them.

    Step 8.

      The teacher instructs the learner to think and then do each step without looking at the card or sheet on which the steps are written.

    Note: The teacher praises effort as well as succesful accomplishmentof each step.

      When the learner has great difficulty with any step, the teacher directs the learner to an earlier step that can be done successfully then instructs him or her to move down to the next step from there.

      On a day soon after the training, the teacher asks the learner to do it without the card or paper with the steps. If the learner is not able to successfully do this, then the teacher repeats the "step-by-step" method for doing the task.