2. Percieved self-control of behavior and achievement outcomes
3. Self-reinforcement i.e. self-praise
4. Adaptive skills i.e. communication, socialization and daily living skills
5. Engagement in success behaviors
Many of the external variables (e.g., socioeconomic status, family functioning, teachers attitudes etc.) that significantly influence academic and social problems are unlikely to change during childhood. Because of poverty, neighborhood violence, racism and discrimination, many of the external influences on the academic performance and behavior of African-American youth are negative, and impede the success of these youth. For this reason it is critical that African-American youth develop high levels of self-motivation, percieved self-control, self-reinforcement, adaptive skills and engagement in success behaviors.
2. To motivate themselves (using short-term and long-term goals)
3. To self-manage their behaviors and express their feelings constructively
4. To use adaptive skills and to practice success behaviors
5. To praise themselves for acquiring and using adaptive skills and success behaviors
The teacher figures out what steps are involved in doing the behavior/task by doing it himself prior to meeting with the learner.
The teacher writes the steps on a large index card or sheet of paper using clear print and simple wording.
The teacher expalins to the learner what will be taught using the steps on the index card or piece of paper.
The teacher show the learner how to do the behavior/task by readingaloud and then doing each step. The learner is told to listen and observe the demonstration and feel free to ask questions as the teacher demonstrates each step.
The teacher instructs the learner to read aloud and then do each step. The teacher assists the learner in getting a step correct when an error is made or when the learner has forgotten how to do a step. It is important to make sure the learner does not skip any steps.
The teacher instructs the learner to study the steps in an effort to memorize them.
The teacher instructs the learner to think and then do each step without looking at the card or sheet on which the steps are written.
Note: The teacher praises effort as well as succesful accomplishmentof each step.
On a day soon after the training, the teacher asks the learner to do it without the card or paper with the steps. If the learner is not able to successfully do this, then the teacher repeats the "step-by-step" method for doing the task.