Timeline of the Black Press
Freedom's Journal, the first African-American Newspaper, is founded in New York City by John Russwurm and Samuel Cornish.
The anti-slavery journal, the African Journal, is published in Philadelphia; while another anti-slavery journal, the National Philanthropist, is founded in Boston.
Samuel Cornish changes the name of Freedom's Journal to The Rights of All; however, all publication ends less than six months later.
A freed-black newspaper is started in Columbus, OH known as Palladium of Liberty.
The first black newspaper in Philadelphia, called The Demosthenian Shield, is published.
The North Star begins publication in Rochester, NY. It is co-founded and co-edited by Frederick Douglass and Martin Delaney.
Mary Ann Shadd Cary creates a prototype of The Provincial Protoype, which urges black Americans to emigrate to Canada following the passage of The Fugitive Slave Law.
The official organ of the AME Church, the Christian Organ, begins. It is the longest running African-American newspaper to date.
Melvin Gibbs publishes the first black paper in California called The Mirror of the Times (San Francisco).
Over 40 black owned and operated newspapers exist throughout the United States.
An appeal for Black men in northern states to answer the call of the Union Army begins in Douglass' Monthly. It is considered the best way to win the war of equality. This is considered the predecessor to the Double V campaign of the early 1900s.
The New Orleans Tribune becomes the first daily newspaper in the United States. It publishes both an English and a French version.
PBS Pinchback, the first black governor in the United States, begins the first semi-weekly newspaper in the United States. It was known as the New Orleans Louisianan.
The first illustrated journal, the Indianapolis Freeman, is published by Edward Elder Cooper.
The Associated Correspondents of Race Newspapers is formed.
The Afro-American is founded by Rev. William Alexander. On the East Coast, it becomes the largest black-owned publication. Later that year, it is purchased by John H. Murphy, Sr.
Additionally, the first black medical journal, the Medical and Surgical Observer, begins publication under Miles V. Lynk.
Josephine St. Pierre Ruffin founds the first newspaper written for and by women. The Women's Era becomes the official paper of The National Association of Colored Women.
The Indianapolis Recorder begins publication the same year.
The Chicago Defender is started by Robert S. Abbott.
Edward Nathaniel Harleston establishes the Pittsburgh Courier.
A weekly, known as the Amsterdam News, is established by James H. Anderson.
PB Young, Sr. purchases the Norfolk Journal and Guide.
Crisis magazine, the official paper of the NAACP, is published and edited by WEB Dubois.
Encouragement in the Chicago Defender leads to the Great Migration north for Southern blacks. The paper also adopts the slogan "if you must die, take at least one with you."
Claude Barnett founds the Associated Negro Press (ANP).
The official paper of the Urban League, Opportunity: A Journal of Negro Life, begins publication.
A paper staffed entirely by women, the Chicago Bee, is published.
The Atlanta Daily World begins publication under William Alexander Scott. It is the first successful black daily newspaper, though it did not become daily until 1932.
Black newspapers throughout the country support the Double V campaign (victory abroad, victory in America). The Chicago Whip launches it with the "Don't Buy Where You Can't Work" campaign.
The American Newspaper Guild, the first guild at a black newspaper, is established.
The same year, the black press helps promote pan-Africanism as Blacks unite to support Ethiopia in its fight against Italy.
An unofficial FBI investigation begins against the black press.
The Pittsburgh Courier launches another Double V campaign.
Army Intelligence begins to seek methods for preventing distribution of black newspapers.
Elijah Muhammad founds the weekly newspaper, Muhammed Speaks, which is the official paper of the Nation of Islam. It later changes its name to the Final Call.
The Black Panther Paper, based in Oakland, CA, is published.
Moneta Sleet of Jet Magazine is named the first black photographer to win a Pulitzer Prize for feature of photojournalism.
Award-winning photograph of Coretta Scott King and her daughter, Bernice, at the funeral of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.
The Association of Black Journalists is formed in Philadelphia. This organization is the predecessor to the National Association of Black Journalists (NABJ).
Forty-four black news reporters form the National Association of Black Journalists in Washington, DC.