|Birth of Kaiulani during the reign|
4. Still powerful
In 1874, David Kalakaua was voted king. As it turned out, he was the last king of the Pacific kingdom. Since he gained support of the people, King Kalakaua retained a high “alii,” or nobility. However, leading Western businessmen, who were the sons and grandsons of the original missionaries, looked at the king’s political power differently.
Probably, the Western businessmen didn’t like to hear about the monarchy because they contributed directly to the development of the Kingdom, not his reign. King Kalakaua knew the Westerners. Accordingly, he did his best to keep the economy healthy and to create a resurgence of the Hawaiian culture. For example, King Kalakaua brought back the hula, the ancient folk dances of Hawaii, for the public for the first time since the missionaries had banned the dances (White, 2001, p. 235). The king, however, was concerned that he did not have an heir.
6. “Four Sacred Ones of Hawaii”
King Kalakaua was called one of the “Four Sacred Ones of Hawaii.” (Linnea 1999, p. 16) The other three were Kalakaua’s younger brother, William Pitt Leleiohoku; his sister, Lydia Liliuokalani; and another sister, Miriam Likelike. Leleiohoku died unmarried and childless three years after Kalakaua’s ascension. Since Kalakaua and Liliuokalani were married to others, and both couples were childless, the couples decided to have a form of adoption called “hanai” (White, 2001, p. 234).
7. The birth of the princess
The “Hanai” practice was no longer needed after October, 16, 1875. On that day, Likelike, the last one of Four Sacred Ones of Hawaii, delivered a baby girl in Honolulu. The girl was named “Victoria Kawekiu Lunalilo Kalaninuiahilapalapa Kaiulani Cleghorn.” People call her Princess Kaiulani. She became the first direct heir to be part Hawaiian and part Westerner because her father, Archibald Cleghorn, was born in Scotland (Reid, 2003).
|Princess Kaiulani as a toddler. Her Scot-Hawaiian heritage made her a born beauty (Linnea, 1999, p. 18).|
5015 Survey of Electronic Publishing, Prof.
David E. Carlson
College of Journalism and Communications, University of Florida
2003 Spring Semester Project by Yucca Shimizu
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