children                                                                          TV Set                                                                                                     
                                                                                                             and
                         TV Set                                                                                       television

 Programming Quality (Continued)
  An educational program for children aged 2-5, however, may well be of little interest to children aged 6-11 or children aged 12-17.  By contrast, an entertainment program for children is more likely to appeal to a broader range of children. Thus the market for children's educational television may be segmented by age in ways that do not characterize children's entertainment programming or adult programming. Therefore, broadcasters will have little incentive to provide such programming because the small audiences and small resulting advertising revenues means that there will be a substantial cost to them of forgoing larger revenues from other types of programs not shown (B).
     Finally, possible revenues are lost if the commercial broadcaster decides to air eduational programming, instead of, entertainment programming.  “Broadcasters and cable stations alike  
                                                 

are recognizing the potential money to be made from children's television programs and their product spin-offs (toys, international sales, licensing agreements with fast food chains),”(D). As competition increases, the number of programs available to children has surged. Cable outlets such as Nickelodeon and the Cartoon Network are now programming primarily for the child audience.  Quite a few commercial broadcasters are providing weekday and weekend strips of children's programs. Even PBS has developed an island for children with its "PTV" weekday programming designed for the child audience (D).
     The study conducted for the Annenburg Public Policy Center, found that the quality of programming varied tremendously across the different types of stations.  The study found that nearly all of the children's programs that aired on public broadcasting stations are of high quality. In contrast, only about 12 percent of the children's programs aired on Fox, UPN, WB and the independent station are of high quality.  About 13 percent of programs on basic cable 


stations are of high quality. The big three commercial broadcasters fared somewhat better with nearly a third of their programs in the high-quality category.  Lastly, roughly half of programs on premium cable channels such as the Disney Channel are high quality.  Low-quality programming dominated the offerings of Fox, UPN, WB and independents.  Approximately two thirds of their programs fell into this category.  Basic cable and commercial networks also aired a great deal of low-quality programming, about sixty percent and forty-two percent, respectively.  These figures indicate that the majority of what is available to children over the commercial broadcast stations tends to be of low quality-programs that contain violent content and are devoid of educational value.  Public broadcasting stations, on the other hand, offer almost exclusively high quality programs designed to enrich and inform the child viewer. Cable
offerings are somewhat mixed: basic cable programs are primarily of low to moderate quality,
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