Disney Animation and Films
Walt Disney was a pioneer in animation. When Walt learned about Technicolor, he secured a three-year patent to secure exclusive use of color in film. Flowers and Trees was halfway completed when Walt decided to re-shoot the project in color. The multiplane camera also helped change the world of animation. Traditional cell animation, which places all the cells on top of each other, provides little sense of depth. The Multiplane places each cell at a different level and hence the elements of the scene will move independently when the camera is moved.

Multiplance
Disney Studio's artistic achievements came from then relationship between Walt and his employees. Like other studio heads, Walt received all the public attention and praise for the studio's work, but unlike many of his fellow producers, he was at least partly responsible for the studio's accomplishments. Walt was the one who steered cartoons away from the "rubber hose" style of the silent era. He encouraged his artists to develop a realistic, naturalist style of animation in the early 1930s. When animation began for Bambi, Walt brought live animals into the studio to capture realistic animal behaviors.

Walt Disney with baby deers in the Burbank Studio
Complete list of Walt Disney Studios Animated Films from 1937-2001

The Animation Process

  1. A storyboard is made; all the animators and directors come together to discuss the entire film.
  2. The storyboards are presented as the story
  3. Once the story is laid out, the dialogue is recorded. This is done before animation, so the animators know what the characters will say.
  4. After the dialogue is recorded, the animators can make rough sketches of just the characters. Usually these drawings are quite messy; there is still no color, or background. Some animated films have used over 50,000 individual drawings. At most animation studios, the best animators only sketched a few animation drawings, leaving gaps in between. Later on, a person called an "inbetweener" would finish the scenes, by drawing in between the areas that the animator had left.
  5. Once the entire film has been drawn on paper, the animation drawings go to the inking department. There, the inkers copy the animation drawings on to a clear celluloid acetate, sometimes called a Cell.
  6. After the outline of the characters has been made, the unfinished Cellís go to the Painting Department. The painters flip the Cell over, and paint the colors on the back. They paint on the back so the characters appear crisp, and have an outline.
  7. Before the Animation Cells are photographed, a background must be added. Because a Cell is clear, and it only has the painted character on it, if a background is made, it will show through. Usually backgrounds are painted with Tempera or Water Color paint. Although, in some Disney productions, the background was painted on glass, and combined with other glass painted backgrounds to create the illusion of extreme movement. (This technique is use in Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs.)
  8. Now, all the combined elements (the Cell and the background) can be photographed. Although, the final product is not filmed with a normal projector, or camera. A special device, with a lens mounted facing down on to a tabletop captures each frame of the animated feature. Usually, the background is placed into a special mount, then covered with the Cell, then covered with a large piece of glass, then photographed.
  9. After all the drawings have been filmed, the dialogue is added. Sometimes the film is edited at this step.
  10. The animated film is released, and the public may view it.

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