Individual responses to advertising are mediated by factors such as
motivation and ability to process information (MacInnis and Jaworski, 1989)
and attitudes toward the ad (MacKenzie et al., 1989).
- These mediating factors can alter or radically change the hierarchy of
effects or the response to advertising.
In the process of consumer decision-making, in which effects happen
according to a certain sequence, the earlier effects, being necessary
preconditions, are considered more important (McGuire, 1968; Aaker and Day,
- In one situation, advertising may inform and then persuade to promote
sales, while product usage experience has a greater impact on awareness,
attitude formation, and choice than advertising in the other situation.
Product category and level of involvement may determine the order of
effects as well as the strength of each effect (Vaughn, 1986).
- In high-involvement situations, the cognitive stage usually appears
before the affective stage, and these two stages are followed by the
- In low-involvement situations, advertising may create awareness first,
but affect or brand preferences are formed after product trial or experience.