[Integrative Perspectives]

 

 
[Definition]
Integrative perspectives consider the concept of a hierarchy of effects among the cognitive (awareness, comprehension, knowledge), affective (evaluation, liking, preference), and behavioral (action tendencies, such as intentions, trial, purchase) components (Aaker et al., 1992).
From integrative perspectives, different hierarchies of the cognitive, affective, and behavioral components are assumed, depending on the context in which the advertising operates.

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  [Basic Assumptions]
  • Individual responses to advertising are mediated by factors such as motivation and ability to process information (MacInnis and Jaworski, 1989) and attitudes toward the ad (MacKenzie et al., 1989).
    - These mediating factors can alter or radically change the hierarchy of effects or the response to advertising.

  • In the process of consumer decision-making, in which effects happen according to a certain sequence, the earlier effects, being necessary preconditions, are considered more important (McGuire, 1968; Aaker and Day, 1974).
    - In one situation, advertising may inform and then persuade to promote sales, while product usage experience has a greater impact on awareness, attitude formation, and choice than advertising in the other situation.

  • Product category and level of involvement may determine the order of effects as well as the strength of each effect (Vaughn, 1986).
    - In high-involvement situations, the cognitive stage usually appears before the affective stage, and these two stages are followed by the behavioral stage.
    - In low-involvement situations, advertising may create awareness first, but affect or brand preferences are formed after product trial or experience.

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  [Major Studies and Empirical Findings]
  • "Hierarchy of Effects Model" (Lavidge and Steiner, 1961)
    - An audience member sequentially passes through a set of six stages: awareness, knowledge, liking, preference, conviction, and purchase.

  • "Elaboration Likelihood Model" (Petty et al., 1983)
    - Two factors identified in the ELM model as significant are an audience member's motivation to process information and ability to process information.
    - Consumers are most likely to process centrally when both motivation and ability are high; when either is low, peripheral processing is more likely.

  • "The FCB Grid" (Vaughn, 1986)
    - This models uses involvement (high/low) and think/feel (cognitive or affective components) as the two dimensions for classifying product categories.
    - Advertising should be designed according to the quadrant in which the product category belongs.

  • "The Rossiter-Percy Grid" (Krugman, 1972; Naples, 1979)
    - This model uses awareness as a necessary condition for the effectiveness of advertising and a motivational dimension that is divided by informational and transformational aspects.
    - This model distinguishes between product category and brand choices and prescribes advertising tactics that fit the cells of the grid, as defined by involvement and motivation.

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© Copyright 2001, Hanjun Ko. All Rights Reserved.
Questions? Suggestions? Contact me at hanjunko@ufl.edu
Last Updated: April 18, 2001