c. "Revolutionary Concept"
This concept has one trait in common with the Western concept, and that is they both try to operate outside of government controls. Lenin provided some of the ideology for this view of the press - an illegal and subversive communication that used the press and broadcast to overthrow a government or take power away from unwanted rulers. The people of this press have no faith in their government and do not believe they owe it any loyalty. It is not seen as fulfilling their interests, and as such, should be overthrown.
Examples of this type of press can be found in Russia and Africa. In Russia, copies of the Samizdat, secretly typed political tracts and mimeographed copies of illegal books were passed among dissidents. The anti-colonialist movements in many African countries also serve as examples. Political dissidents (who later became leaders), such as Awolowo, Nkrumah and Kenyatta were editors of small political papers that first expressed grievances against the British rulers, encouraged nationalism, and finally advocated political independence (Hachten 28).
Radio broadcasting has also become a valuable tool in the revolutionary concept - especially in post-independence years. It has and still plays a vital role in assisting revolutionary groups trying to overthrow the fragile governments of developing nations. Hachten notes that Black Africa has been plagued with coup d'etat's and that during these times of severe political crisis, the radio often functioned as the primary medium of mass communication. This significance is not ignored by rebels, who often seize the radio station before storming the presidential palace, as they recognize the importance of controlling information at the political center of power. Hachten also adds that during a struggle, military struggles subsequently occur outside the broadcast station because if the rebel group can announce a takeover on the nation's only broadcast station (even before it has actually been accomplished), it helps them accomplish the desired end.
There are, of course, other methods of classifying the differences that exist between global media, and there are also more subgroups and inter links than I have given. However, for the purposes of this rudimentary tour, the sites we have visited are, I feel a sufficient indicator of the various types of media to the simple tourist.