2. Communist Concept
The Communist concept is seen by some as a variation of the authoritarian one. This was a theory advocated mainly by Lenin. According to Lenin, mass media controlled and directed by the Communist Party could concentrate on the task of nation building by publishing news relating to the entire society's policies and goals as determined by the top party leadership. There were three main aspects of this press:
a. The press was to be one-party,
b. It was to control both incoming an outgoing news,
c. The news was to be 'positive' information that furthered party goals, rather than reflecting the interests of the people,
d. It was to be used as a means of exercising control over the people, along with the secret police.
This concept has declined in practice extensively. The Chernobyl Nuclear Accident in April 1986, heralded a change, Hachten writes, as the Soviet was forced to publish negative news about its activities in the face of competition from western media. In 1988, the Soviet Union stopped jamming broadcasts on foreign radio waves. Border censorship of publications has also ended. This 'new' form of media is not completely free from the shadow of its past however.
As Roger Cohen reported in the New York Times, Dec. 1992, "Journalism has been reinvented in Eastern Europe as a craft involving independence and objectivity, but politicians remain uneasy and sometimes ruthless about the new press freedom."