1. Authoritarian Concept

We can see from this then, that the government, historically has always had some sort of relationship with the press. The Authoritarian concept is viewed as the oldest of media concepts, tracing its roots from the as far back as Gutenberg's invention of the printing press in the mid-fifteenth century. With this invention came government limitations and restrictions on something they saw could challenge their authority, as it ended church and state monopoly on knowledge.

According to Hachten, the basic principle of authoritarianism is the press is always subject to the direct of implied control of the state or sovereign. Diversity of views is seen as wasteful and irresponsible, harmful to the country's development. Under this system, the press are allowed to gather and publish news, but the news must be for 'the good of the state', and should not criticize authority or challenge the leadership in any way.

Eighteenth -century Englishman, Dr. Samuel Johnson gives a valid reason for this: "Every society has a right to preserve public peace and order, and therefore a good right to prohibit the propagation of opinions which have a dangerous tendency (Hachten, 16)."

In Uganda A In his article, he details a number of cases where journalists were arrested and charged for comments that here, would stir no concern. Three journalists who asked visiting Zambian president Kenneth Kaunda 'impertinent' questions, - one of whom asked whether the aging Kaunda did not feel it was time to step down and hand power over to a younger person - were imprisoned. William Pike, editor of New Vision, a government-run paper, told Macarthur in an interview, "...we have to follow the government lines in editorials. It would be absurd for the government to publish a newspaper that contradicted its policies (Media Reader 313)." Pike sums up the problem simply,"You're having an evolution of press freedom here. It's a political struggle. We have to establish the boundaries and rights of the press. I don't think you can go from complete dictatorship and terror to pure democracy overnight." The situation is further complicated by other worries. Pike says also, "...there's no point in getting upset about just one thing like press freedom [when there are so many other problems] (Hachten, 313) ."