timeline :  WIRED Magazine Aug.1999



WIRED Magazine August 1999.
1436 Johannes Gutenberg debuts printing press in germany.
1790 US copyright Act establishes basic parameters of copyright in United states.
1841 Folsom v. Marsh introduces doctrine of fair use.
1844 Samuel Morse transmits first message by telegraph, from Washinton,DC, to Baltimore.
1857 Transatlantic cable, laid by Cyrus W. Field and John Pender, connects US and Europe.
1876 Alexander Graham Bell demonstrates telephone in US.
1877 Thomas Edison records and plays "Mary Had a Little Lamb" on a tinfoil cylinder phonograph.
1894 Guglielmo Marconi transmits wireless telegraph signals.
1905 Jukebox is introduced.
1909 US Copyright Act revised to address media categories beyond literature, especially music.
1931 Alan Blumlein invents stereo audio recording.
1948 Columbia Records introduces 33 1/3-rpm 12-inch vinyl LP.
1949 Jay Forrester at MIT invents magnetic computer memory.
1951 Nagra's Stephan Kudelski develops a portable audiotape recorder.
1952 Recording industry Association of America is founded to represent interests of record companies.
1956 - Prerecorded, stereo, open-reel audio tapes hit market.
- BM markets RAMAC 305 hard disc drive, which stores 5 Mbytes on 50 disks 2 feet wide.
1958 Stereophonic records are introduced.
1963 Philips demonstrates compact audiocassette.
1965 Eight-track audiotape cartridges developed by William Lear.
1971 Project Gutenberg begins digitizing major literary works.
1972 Intel introduces 8008 CPU running at 200 KHz.
1973 FTP specification is developed for uploading and downloading digital files between nodes on a network.
1975 First personal computer developed, the MITS Altair 8800.
1976 - Intel 8085 CPU runs at 5 MHz.
- US Robotoics markets PhoneLink 300, a modem that operates at 300 baud.
1979 Walkman portable audiocassette player introduced by Sony.
1982 - Philips and Sony introduce CD digital audio format.
- Intel 80286 processor runs at 6, 10, and 12 MHz, processing 16-bit rather than 8-bit words.
1984 - Apple introduces Macintosh computer.
- Number of internet host exceeds 1,000.
- Philips and Sony develop CD-ROM fromat with 650-Mbyte capacity.
- Motorola 68020 CPU runs at 16 MHz.
- Sony introduces Discman portable CD player.
1985 - US Robotics Courier 2400 modem operates at 2400 bps.
- AOL goes online.
- Microsoft releases Windows 1.0.
1987 - DAT is introduced in Japan.
- Number of internet hosts exceeds 10,000.
- Fraunhofer Institute begins work on new audio codec, later formalized as MP3
1988 AT&T installs first trans-atlantic fiber-optic cable.
1989 - Number of Internet hosts exceeds 100,000.
- Barry Shein founds World.std.com, which soon becomes the first commercial dialup ISP.
1992 - Number of Internet hosts exceeds 1 million.
- US Robotics Sportster 14,400 fax modem operates at 14.4 Kbps.
- US Congress enacts Audio Home Recording Act.
- The Moving Picture Experts Group approves MPEG-1 video and audio data-compression spec, including Audio Layer 3, or MP3.
1993 Intel Pentium CPU runs at 66 MHz.
1994 - Under the name Netscape Communications, Marc Andreessen and Jim Clark release Navigator 1.0.
- Rob Glaser founds Progressive Networks (renamed RealNetworks in 1997).
- US Robotics ships 28.8-Kbps modem.
- MPEG finalizes MPEG-2 spec for video and audio data compression.
1995 - Progressive Networks releases RealAudio 1.0.
- @Home Network is founded to provide broadband Net access via cable modem.
1996 MCI upgrades Net backbone, adding 13,000 ports and boosting effective speed from 155 Mbps to 622 Mbps.
1997 - David Bowie releases five tracks in RealAudio 3.0 format.
- US Robotics ships 56-Kbps modems.
- MP3.com founded by Michael Robertson.
- Audible Inc. ships Audible MobilePlayer.
1998 - Microsoft releases Windows Media Player.
- Diamond Multimedia announces Rio PMP 300 potable MP3 audio player.
- RIAA applies for temporary restraining order to halt shipment of Rio PMP300.
- US District Court for Central District of California allows Diamond Multimedia to ship Rio PMP300.
- MPEG approves preliminary version of MPEG-4.
- RealNetworks releases RealSystem G2.
- Intel Pentium II Xeon processor runs at 450 MHz.
- US Congress passes Digital Millennium Copyright Act.
- RIAA announces Secure Digital Music Initiative.
1999 - Audible begins offering MP3-encoded content.
- Intel Pentium III Xeon processor runs at 550 MHz.
- IBM unveils Madison Project, a digital audio-distribution platform.
- Microsoft releases Windows Media Technologies.
- RealNetworks acquires Xing Technology, pioneer in MPEG streaming.
- RealNetworks releases RealJukebox.
- Universal Music partners with InterTrust to develop technology for selling music online.
- Hollywood motion picture premiers on Net-available for 3 days only.
2000 - MPEG approves MPEG-4 spec.
- TiVo delivers a Diamond Rio for television programming.
2001 Motion Picture Association of America proposes the Secure Digital Motion Picture Initiative to create a downloadable-video file format that incorporates copyright protection.
2002 MPEG approves MPEG-7 encompassing multimedia search, filtering, management, and processing.
2003 - Handheld wireless Net radios receive streaming audio on demand.
- Handheld wireless TVs use cheap LCD screens to deliver streaming video on demand.
2004 Chinese film students crack Paramount's intranet and post entire contents to Beijing University server. For 79 hours, Net users have free access to streaming 800-Kbps MPEG-2 versions of innumerable movie classics.
2008 - New codecs deliver HDTV resolution on Net.
- Cable modems and DSL phone services achieve 50 percent penetration in US.
2009 ABC debuts a Net-only soap opera, aimed at office workers.
2016 Interactive sitcom My.Friends grips nation.