It is important to accept the fact that diamonds are formed inside the earth under extreme temperatures and pressure conditions over a long period of time. Now with that in mind, expecting a natural event such as the formation of a diamond to form a flawless stone every time is unreasonable. Clarity is one of the four factors that help jewelers estimate the value of diamonds. We will be discussing the GIA (Gemological Institute of America) clarity scale but before that, there are some terms that you should be familiar with in order to grade your diamond.
First off, inclusions are flaws that are within the stone. They may be whitish crystal formations or pepper like spots that are unformed carbon bits. Second, blemishes are flaws that are found on the outer surface of the stone, such as a chip that may have occurred during the cutting stage or simply when the diamond was worn. Some other terms that you may hear are feathering or graining. These traits can be found when a diamond has whitish lines or fractures within the stone. Altogether, these characteristics of a diamond can drastically change the value.
When looking for flaws within a stone, jewelers use a small magnifying glass called a loupe. It is recommended to buy your own loupe, but if you choose not to, any good jewelry store can provide you with one. The most commonly used loupe in the industry is 10x magnifier. They are very precise and will allow you to see the flaws that the human eye cannot spot.