Fair Use Exception
use" exception gives individuals the rights to copy, distribute,
and use individual works of authorship for academic purposes,
such as teaching, scholarship, or research, for news reporting,
or for criticism.  Even if,
however, such use is made of these copyrighted works, such use
may not necessarily be fair. to determine whether 'fair use"
exists, it is necessary to consider four factors, developed
in common law and codified in the 1976 Copyright Act:
- the purpose and character
of the use, including whether such use is of a commercial
nature or is for nonprofit educational purposes;
- the nature of the copyrighted
- the amount and substantiality
of the portion used in relation to the copyrighted work
as a whole; and
- the effect of the use
upon the potential market for or value of the copyrighted
however, the fair use exception is generally construed narrowly.
It requires that the use be for nonprofit purposes, have limited
effect on the market sale of the product, use only small portions
of the work, and not use the "heart" or the quantitatively
most significant aspects of a work 
Only particular forms of
expression may be copyrighted, not methods, layouts, ideas
protection extends for only a set time period. After a copyright
expires, the author's ownership rights are transferred to
the general public.
Copyright Website. Available at <<http://http://www.benedict.com/info/fairUse/fairUse.asp>>
Last accessed, November 25,2002.
Copyright Act of 1976, 17 U.S.C. § 107.
and New Technologies. Available at <<http://www.educationworld.com/a_curr/curr280c.shtml>>
Last accessed, November 25, 2002