only that the author contribute some independent thought towards
Almost any tangible expression
created by an individual, corporation, or joint entity, such
as painting, drawings, photographs, movies, or web pages,
is likely to satisfy the "originality" requirement.
Indeed, any author that does not merely "cut and paste"
the expression of others or rely solely on commonly used phrases
like "cyberspace," may claim that his or her work
is "original" for copyright purposes.
that the work be "sufficiently permanent or stable to
permit it to be perceived, reproduced, or otherwise communicated
for a period of more than transitory duration." 
Web pages stored on a computer
hard drive, a floppy disc,or a CD rom are "fixed."
Web pages that now only exists on the World Wide Web are also
"fixed" under this definition. There is a debate
as to whether the temporary storage of a software program
or web graphic in the random access memory of a personal computer
would meet this "fixation" requirement, although
this "storage" would seem to lack even the low "originality"
While copyright law orginally
contemplated the protection of author's rights in expression
in printed form, copyright law and policy has expanded and
changed in respond to technological developments in mass communications.
Courts readily concede that Internet communications, like
other forms of technology-based communications, may be protected
by copyright law.