All of the measures used here are adapted from previous relevant studies and have been commonly employed in the domain of this topic.

- Online Shopping Behavior

- Demographics

- Perceived Risk

- The Reputation of Retailers

- Consumer Orientations

- Price

- Type of Access

Online Shopping Behavior
In this study, online shopping behavior are defined as how many consumers made purchases on the Internet in the past 6 months.

1. ¡°Less than 3 times¡±
Occasional Web buyer
2. ¡°4-6 times¡±
Frequent Web buyer
3. ¡°7-10 times¡±
4. ¡°11-20 times¡±
5. ¡°More that 20 times¡±

This index was used to previous study (Li et al. 1999). The previous study categorized the response as: ¡°Never,¡± ¡°1-3 times.¡± ¡°4-6 times,¡± ¡°7-10 times,¡± ¡°11-20 times,¡± and ¡°More that 20 times.¡± These categories were coded into three levels as non-Web user, occasional Web user, and frequent Web user. But this study will use same five categories and classify two levels: ¡°Occasional¡± and ¡°Frequent¡±.


1) Age

Under 21
21 - 29
30 - 39
40 -49
50 - 65
Over 65

2) Education

High school graduate
Some college
College graduate
Some Graduate
Graduate Degree


Less than $29,999
Low Income
$30,000 - $49,999
Low Medium
$50,000 - $79,999
High Medium
More than $80,000
High Income

4) Gender


Perceived Risk

A two-item index will be adapted from previous study (Swanminathan, et al, 1999) in order to measure consumers' percieved risk.
Two items are

Strongly Disagree
Strongly Agree
1. In general, how concerned are you about security on the Internet?          
2. How concerned are you about security in relation to making purchases or banking over the Internet?          

A five-point scale will be used ranging from 1 (strongly disagree) to 5 (strongly agree) about each question. ¡°5¡± point means the highest perceived risk, whereas ¡°1¡± point means the lowest perceived risk.

The Reputation of Retailers

In order to reputation, the prior study index will be also used (Jarvenpaa et al., 1999). Respondents will be asked to answer three items about the perceived risk. Three items are

Strongly Disagree
Strongly Agree
1. This Website is well known.          
2. This Website has a bad reputation in the market.          
3. This Website has a good reputation.          

A five-point scale will also be used ranging from 1 (strongly disagree) to 5 (strongly agree) about each question.

Consumer Orientations: Convenience-oriented and Experience-oriented

In order to measure consumer orientation, experiential orientation and convenience orientation will be used. In this attempt, respondents will be asked about total 6 statements, which have a five-point scale (Li et al. 1999).

Strongly Disagree
Strongly Agree

Experiential Orientation

1. I like to see and touch products before I buy them.          
2. I hate buying things without seeing what I am getting.          
3. I like to try it before I buy a product.          
Convenience Orientation          
1. I hate to wait in long lines for checking out goods.          
2. Saving time while shopping is very important to me.          
3. I want to be able to shop at any time of the day.          


These items are adapted from Donthu and Garcia (1999).

Strongly Disagree
Strongly Agree
1. I usually purchase the cheapest item.          
2. I usually purchase items on sale only.          
3. I often find myself checking prices.          
4. A person can save a lot by shopping for bargains.          


Type of Access



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Last updated: November, 2002
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