I was interested in Negative Political Advertising. It still works in American politics. The future studies shoul be done to examine the effectiveness of Negative Political Advertising. Critics of negative political advertising argue that these ads contribute to voter alienation and apathy and are harmful to the U.S. democratic process.Some researchers have found the following.
Reference1. Garramone, G. M. (1984). Voter responses to negative political ads.
Journalism Quarterly, 61, 250-259.
2. Johnson-Cartee, K. S., & Copeland, G. A. (1991). Negative political advertising: coming of age. New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1-283.
3. Merrit, S. (1984). Negative political advertising: some empirical findings. Journal of Advertising, 13(3), 27-38.
4. Surlin, S.H. , Gordon, T.F. (1977). How values affect attitudes toward direct reference political advertising. Journalism Quarterly, 54, 89-98.
5. Trent, J.S. & Friedenberg, R.V. (1995). Political campaign communication:principles and practices. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers.
6. West, D. M. (1993). Air Wars : Television Advertising in Election Campaigns, 1952-1992. Washington, D.C.: Congressional Quarterly Inc, 46-52.
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Last updated: November 3, 2000